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Le 27 janvier 2022Laurie Schneider présentera ses travaux intitulés "Mesurer l’attitude des agriculteurs face au risque : le cas de la gestion individuelle des quotas d’eau dans trois périmètres élémentaires du Sud-Ouest de la France".

Le séminaire se tiendra de 9h30 à 11h30, à la fois en présentiel, en salle de réunion (Bât. 29), sur le Campus de l'Institut Agro Montpellier La Gaillarde, et en distanciel via les infos de connexion suivantes :

 

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Résumé :

L’attitude face au risque est un déterminant majeur des comportements individuels. En particulier, pour les agriculteurs, prendre des décisions en matière de planification et de conduite des cultures constitue une prise de risque ; l’environnement dans lequel ils évoluent est dynamique (en changement constant), observable de façon partielle uniquement et incertain (le futur ne peut être prédit avec certitude) (Sanou, Liverpool-Tasie, et Shupp 2018; Bougherara et al. 2017).

Comprendre les comportements des agriculteurs demande donc d’étudier leurs préférences individuelles face au risque (Reynaud et Couture 2012). L’étude présentée ici mesure l’attitude (attrait ou aversion) des agriculteurs face au risque dans un contexte décisionnel précis : la gestion individuelle de leur quota d’eau. Elle a été menée par entretiens semi-directifs dans trois périmètres élémentaires situés dans le bassin hydrographique français Adour-Garonne (Midour aval, Midour amont et Argence), dans lesquels 19 agriculteurs ont été interrogés.

Nous avons combiné deux méthodes : la première est adaptée de Dohmen et al. (2011) (préférences déclarées). La seconde est adaptée du protocole proposé par Gneezy et Potters (1997), tel que décrit par Charness et Viceisza (2016) et Sanou, Liverpool-Tasie, et Shupp (2018) (préférences révélées). Ces méthodes et leurs résultats seront présentés.

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Le bassin de Bouregreg au Maroc, est très peuplée, avec une agriculture intense et un climat semi-aride. L'irrigation s'étend sur la plaine et elle est assurée par les oueds, et par un pompage généralisé de l’eau souterraine qui connait un épuisement. Dans les conditions actuelles de diminution des précipitations, de diminution des apports des oueds et de l'augmentation de la demande en eau d'irrigation, l’eau souterraine est de plus en plus surexploitée et connait une baisse accélérée qui menace la durabilité de la ressource et de l’irrigation. Dans ce contexte, il est nécessaire de caractériser l’eau souterraine utilisée pour l’irrigation et évaluer sa durabilité.

La présente thèse a pour objectifs de délimiter les zones de recharge, d’identifier les sources de recharge (eau de pluie, oueds, retours d’irrigation), d’analyser les contaminant émergents dans les aquifères, et d’analyser la relation hydraulique entre l’amont (zone potentielle de recharge) et l’aval (zone d’exploitation). Les résultats obtenus serviront à évaluer la durabilité de la ressource en eau en identifiant les ressources renouvelables de celles non renouvelables, en étudiant les processus de recharge et d’écoulement, et en mettant en évidence l’évolution de la qualité des eaux souterraines du bassin.

 

Mots clés : recharge des eaux souterraines, qualité des eaux souterraines, ressources en eaux souterraines

 

In a context of increasing pressure on water resources, the search for better agricultural productivity of irrigation water leads to optimize watering schedules according to soil water conditions and crop development stages. Spatial remote sensing can now provide spatialized information in near-real time on soil and vegetation characteristics. In particular, radar data have shown great potential for estimating soil moisture. Similarly, optical data have been used for a long time to estimate vegetation parameters (leaf area index, biomass...). This information can be integrated in crop models to simulate in real time the evolution of the yield. The general objective of the thesis is to show how information from high spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing can be used to retrieve the water and vegetation dynamics of an irrigated area. The approach is based on experiments carried out on an irrigated cereal (maize) plot system, with spatial and ground observations with high temporal repetitivity, and the use of a crop model.

 

The first part of the thesis aims to evaluate the characterization of soil parameters (roughness and moisture) and vegetation by coupling radar remote sensing data in C and L bands (respectively Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2/PALSAR) and optical (mainly Sentinel-2). The coupled use of C- and L-band data will allow a better estimation of soil moisture due to a better penetration of the L-band radar wave in dense agricultural canopies. In addition, we should be able to jointly estimate soil moisture and soil roughness. The current availability of L-band data (ALOS2/PALSAR) and the planned launch of new L-band sensors (SAOCOM-1A and NISAR) gives this objective a strong scientific legitimacy. Vegetation parameters such as LAI will be computed from Sentinel-2 optical data.

 

The second component, conducted in parallel, will consist in the realization of a remote sensing module for the Optirrig crop model, developed at the UMR G-Eau (Montpellier) and involved in many academic and operational partnerships. The challenge of this component will be at least to carry out the forcing of observations obtained by remote sensing and if possible to go towards data assimilation in the mathematical sense (i.e. allowing a recalibration of the model parameters).

 

Key words :  remote sensing, Optirrig, irrigation, Sentinel-2, vegetation, LAI, soil moisture

 

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Figure 1: Illustration of the difference (E) between the LAI without irrigation (LAI0i) and the noisy one (vLAI) representing the LAI derived from remote sensing that allows us to identify evidence of irrigation between the Sentinel-2 images (ti)

The lens of agroecology has, to date, seldomly been used to study farming systems and cropping systems in North Africa, even the more in irrigated zones. Yet, agroecological practices are common within small-scale irrigated farming systems, although often undertaken in combination with more conventional practices.

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© Photos : preparation of manure tea (Leauthaud et al. submitted)

 

 

In particular, one innovation that has spread with the use of drip-irrigation and fertigation strategies, is the use of manure-based teas, applied to various fruit and green market products. This bottom-up innovation remains mostly invisible to decision makers and researchers, while questions arise concerning its composition, agronomic effects as well as its interactions with the soil, and in the case of fertigation applications, its role on pipe and drip emitter clogging. This project aims to conduct original research bridging irrigation science - agronomy- soil science and participatory processes, within the framework of a collaboration between the two research units Eco&Sols and Geau.

The team will initiate a PhD-level research work, aimed at improving fertigation practices of farmers, by characterizing and co-experimenting with farmers improvement pathways of this locally existing innovative agroecological practice of artisanal manure-based tea extracts in irrigated agriculture in North Africa.

 

Three specific questions, in particular, underlie this goal:
  • What are the major physico-chemical and biological properties of artisanal manure teas?
  • What are the impacts on soil physicochemical and biological properties, on crop growth and on the irrigation system?
  • How, and in which conditions, can the implementation of participatory processes in co-learning lead to improved fertigation strategies of farmers, and in fine to more virtuous uses of organic liquid fertilizers?
 
To bring answers to these questions, the PhD candidate will:
  • Undertake with farmers a participatory co-design process to initiate collaborative reflections on improvement of fertigation strategies, by (i) describing the use of manure tea by farmers, and (ii) implementing a set of workshops with the famers to co-design novel solutions. This will be implemented in two to three different sites in Tunisia. 
  • Uundertake experimental characterizations of (i) used manure teas, and its impact on the (ii) soil, cropping and (iii) irrigation systems.

 

Key words: manure teas, fertigation, irrigated agriculture, co-design processes, physicochemical and biological properties.

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Dix-sept scientifiques, dont trois chercheurs de G-EAU (J.P. Venot, F. Molle et M. Kuper) répondent à un Editorial de la revue Nature Sustainability d'Aout 2021 qui pointait le manque de recherches innovantes dans le domaine de l’eau et la prépondérance des travaux très axés quantification et technologie, voire éloignés du terrain.
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Le séminaire ICIREWARD Sc. Sociales intitulé « La place de l'hydrologie dans des recherches en sciences sociales : dialogue, négociations et contorsions » aura lieu lundi 10 janvier à 10h.

Plusieurs interventions au programme :

  • Youssoupha Tall, post-doctorant IRD UMR GEAU, qui présentera "Lire la trajectoire des hydrogéologues Sahéliens : postures sociologiques et exigences méthodologiques"
  • Fabienne-émilie Brancato Errero, doctorante IMT Mines d’Alès, qui présentera "Exploration des potentialités d’une sociohydrologie pragmatique et située : premiers résultats sur l’analyse de l’évolution des agencements hydrosociaux dans un hameau cévenol"
  • Javier Rodriguez Ros, doctorant IRD, UMR GEAU et Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, qui présentera "Explorer le potentiel de la réflexivité critique en sciences hydro-sociales"

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  • En présentiel (salle 215/bât 11 sur le site de SupAgro, Place Viala à Montpellier).

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Meilleurs vœux pour cette année 2022 et au plaisir de vous voir nombreux lundi !

image2© Photo : I. A. Ramos-Fuentes (Sun’Agri 3 – 2021)

 

 

Access to drinking water is declining in most countries (Burek et al., 2016), due to several demographic and climatic factors, as well as inefficient management of water resources, especially in agriculture. In France, irrigated agriculture is an important activity, mainly concerning arable crops (corn and other cereals), in a context where water use restrictions are proving to be more and more frequent, especially in the Mediterranean countries. It has been shown that "well thought out" cultivation under agrivoltaic systems can reduce water requirements and maintain a level of production comparable to that of open-air growth.

 

 

image1© I. A. Ramos-Fuentes (Sun’Agri 3 – 2021)

 

 

The dynamic agrivoltaic devices (DAV) would allow additional control over the system via the control of the rotation of the panels, to reduce the heterogeneity of the distribution of rainfall resulting from their presence. These tracking systems also involve more complex optimization questions, in particular, because the movement of the panels changes the spatial and temporal patterns of the cast shadow and therefore the plant's response to these heterogeneities. Therefore, the water balance of the soil, the water requirements of the crop, its growth, and its biomass production must be described by processes specific to the dynamic agrivoltaic context. This is particularly the case for field crops, as they are crops with long cycles, exhibiting more complex physiology and diverse radiation responses (type C3 or C4 metabolisms; Campillo et al., 2012). These are also crops for which constraints on irrigation will certainly exist and will have to be simulated (adaptation of irrigation techniques, availability of the resource) to optimize the use of water.

 

Keywords: Dynamic Agrivoltaics; Irrigation; Crop modeling; Water optimization; Field crops

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Consuelo Biskupovic (Universidad Mayor) et Rosario Carmona (Bonn University) sont de passage à G-EAU pour travailler avec Marie Lusson et Christelle Gramaglia dans le cadre du projet ECOS SUD, en collaboration avec le Chili, qui porte sur la question de la réparation des environnements abimés entre geste technique et care.
 

A cette occasion, elles présenteront leurs travaux intitulés "Comment faire entendre sa voix sur la question du changement climatique ? La participation comme moyen de faire face à la crise climatique".

 

La présentation aura lieu à la fois en présentiel le 07 janvier 2022 à 11h00 sur le campus de SupAgro La Gaillarde, en salle 215 (bât. 11) et en distanciel via les infos de connexion suivantes :

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Résumé :

VD ChiliIncreasing scientific evidence (IPCC, 2021), coupled with slow and limited progress in technical and multilateral responses (Vogel and O’Brien, 2021; Höhne et al., 2020), has promoted the emergence of civil society in international climate change debates (de la Cuadra, 2016; Ulloa, 2011; O’Brien and Sygna, 2013). In parallel, extensive research has demonstrated the need for civil society participation in climate governance (CR2 2019). In addition to improving climate policy, participation plays an essential role in education, facilitating the timely transformation of socio-ecological conflicts and overcoming mistrust (Beierle & Cayford 2002).

 

In Chile, the literature has analyzed the fragility of citizen participation, but there are few or no studies that ask what civil society is doing in the face of the climate problem.

 

In this context, this work aims to analyze the involvement of civil society in the climate governance of the Chilean state.

 

To do this, we assess how to have a voice in the climate change issue. Then we present the trajectories and objectives of two experiences of participation based on the voices of its members. These experiences are the Civil Society for Climate Action (SCAC) and the Chilean Indigenous Caucus on Climate Change. We consider participation as the tentative paths forged by citizens to influence, give their opinion and be heard in decision-making bodies. This research was conducted between 2019 and 202 through a qualitative approach. To assess how the state has promoted participation in the context of climate change, the main official documents that regulate participation in the framework of state climate governance were reviewed. 

 

Together with a research team, thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted with actors involved in the SCACs and six with the Chilean Indigenous Caucus. The interviews focused, in the first case, on seven dimensions: on the people interviewed, their knowledge and attachments, the problem of climate change, the organization to which they belong and the national and international context. In the second case, the interviews aimed to identify their motivations for engaging in climate governance, their assessment of state processes and their projections for the future. Participant observation was also carried out in the activities carried out by these groups—both in-person and online. Meetings, seminars, and dialogues organized by the government were observed, where members of these collectives presented their ideas and demands. Participant observation was also carried out at two climate change conferences, COP25, organized by Chile but held in Madrid in 2019, and COP26, organized by the United Kingdom and held in Glasgow in 2021. During these conferences, the participation of the Chilean Indigenous Caucus members was observed, both in the civil society spaces and in the international negotiations.

 

According to the literature, the inclusion of civil society in climate decision-making has been fragmented and associated with negative stereotypes, such as those that identify Chilean political culture as passive and depoliticised and apathetic to participatory processes (Sapiains, Ugarte and Aldunce, 2017). However, what do we observe when looking “inside”? Looking inside allows us to understand that involving diverse actors from civil society and consolidating participatory processes are crucial to improving climate change actions (CR2, 2019). Moreover, this is a fruitful field to study the different knowledge at stake and observe the co-construction of social responses to the problem (Fustec, 2011). 

 

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In a global scenario of population growth, increased urbanisation, strong pressure on water resources and an increase in the frequency of extreme temperatures, urban hot spots will be more pronounced, more difficult to combat and their deleterious effects will affect an increasingly large population. These findings call for initiatives to build resilient cities based on the analysis of new data sources, resources and the use of water of all qualities present in urban areas. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the capacity of vegetation to improve the quality of life of the population and the urban ecosystem. The methodology chosen for this purpose is the multi-scale modelling of the energy balance existing between the building, the substrate of the vegetation and the vegetation itself, and the interactions with the turbulences of the urban canopy. The idea is to identify the direction, geometry, temporality and relative importance of the heat flows (conduction, convection, radiation and phase change) involved in the system. We will attempt to identify quantitatively what is the attenuation of urban temperatures and how to optimize the performance of vegetation to contribute to build smarter and perennial cities.

image1 ©ADEME, 2021

 

 

 

 

In addition to the production and analysis of micro-climatic and agronomic data, modelling work and similarity experimentation are also planned. The objective of this thesis is to develop a systemic approach and to produce an integrated model allowing to couple crop growth and aeraulics in order to help decision making in terms of the choice of vegetalisation of cities according to various hydraulic, thermal, energetic and aesthetic constraints. This model, which will work at the scale of a meter, can then be coupled with meteorological models adapted to cities or heat exchange models of buildings.

 

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Key words : Urban Vegetation, Numerical Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamic, Crop Model, Smart Cities.

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